Third Stage


Semester One


Units : 3
Lecturer : Mohammad Ali Mohammad Sadik

Description :

Genetics  is a popular and rapidly expanding subject , so , writing in this field belongs to the same category  of human folly as trying  to cross the Atlantic in a rowboat .I have tried to hard to get my view  of  Genetics  accurately  positioned  in  the  present  pointing  in  the  right  direction  for  the  future .

            My  aim  has been to provide a picture  of  the  current  state  of  Genetics  for  the  students  with  no  previous  knowledge  of  the subject.

            I  am  seeking , in  this  course , for :

Emphasize  the  basic  concepts  of  Genetics

To  provide  ,clearly  and  directly ,understandable  explanations  of  complex  analytical  topics .

Maintain  constant  emphasis  on  science  as  a  way  of  illustrating  how  we  know  what  we  know .

Propagate  the  rich  history of  Genetics  that  so beautifully  elucidates  how  information  is  acquired .

Molecular Biology

Units : 3
Lecturer : Dr. Jeladet Muhamed Salih

Description :

Molecular biology is the branch of biology that deals with the molecular basis of biological activity. This field overlaps with other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding and the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between the different types of DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis as well as learning how these interactions are regulated.

Molecular biology or is so called Biotechnology according to many scientists means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. This definition covers a wide range of diverse technologies including for example, the use of DNA markers in detection genes of interest or genetic diseases, gene cloning and gene transfer, vegetative reproduction and embryo transfer in plants using tissue culture techniques. This science has received far more attention in the last few years from scientists worldwide than it has ever in the past. This may be attributed to many factors, perhaps one of the most important factors is that the global population is increasing by roughly 80 million annually and almost all population growth is in developing countries. Since the area of agricultural land available is limited, the increase in amount of food production needed to feed worlds growing population must come from increasing of food produced per hectare. It includes a range of scientific tools that can be applied to different aspects of agriculture, food production and health care.


Units : 3
Lecturer : Dr. Malika Kassim Najeeb

Description :

Histology is defined as the scientific study of the microscopic structure (microanatomy) of cells and tissues. The term "histology" comes from the Greek words "histos," meaning tissue or columns, and "logia," which means study. Is the study of the tissues and focuses on microstructures of the human body and their related functions, and is divided into general histology that studies the cell and intracellular matrix of the four basic types of tissues, and special histology that studies how the tissues are arranged to constitute the organs in various systems.

In another meaning, Histology; also known as microscopic anatomy or microanatomy:

  1. The branch of biology dealing with the study of tissues.
  2. The structure, especially the microscopic structure, of organic tissues.

Uses of Histology

Histology is important in science education, applied science, and medicine.

Histology is taught to biologists, medical students, and veterinary students because it helps them understand and recognize different types of tissues. In turn, histology bridges the gap between anatomy and physiology by showing what happens to tissues at the cellular level.

Archaeologists use histology to study biological material recovered from archaeological sites. Bones and teeth are most likely to provide data. Paleontologists may recover useful material from organisms preserved in amber or frozen in permafrost.

Histology is used to diagnose diseases in humans, animals, and plants and to analyze the effects of treatment.

Histology is used during autopsies and forensic investigations to help understand unexplained deaths. In some cases, a cause of death may be evident from microscopic tissue examination. In other cases, the microanatomy may reveal clues about the environment after death.

Animal Physiology

Units : 3

Description :

Lecturer: Amad mohammed Saleh


The syllabus has been arranged in a manner to provide with essential concepts of animal physiology for undergraduate students. The course serve to illustrate how physiological concepts can be applied to explain the various properties of general and systemic physiology are included in the course; in addition summaries of relevant anatomic, biochemical, physical and clinical explanations are included to illustrate physiologic points and normal functions.

          The following subjects (major areas) represent all the animal physiology lectures for one academic year (annual system) covering most of the required aspects in animal physiology for the third class of college of Science students, department of biology.

Cell Biology

Units : 3
Lecturer : Dr. Bushra M.A Mohammed

Description :

Cell Biology is the study of the structure and function of the cell. In Cell Biology  course we will focus on Eukaryotic cell biology and will cover topics such as membrane structure and composition, transport, and  intracellular compartment  and protein trafficking; the cytoskeleton and cell movement; the breakdown of macromolecules and generation of energy; the extracellular matrix ,its chemical component and their function ; stem cells . We will also cover important cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation,  Meiosis and gamete formation ; cell receptors and signal transduction, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and cancer cell biology. Throughout the semester we will attempt to relate defects in these various cellular processes to human diseases to help gain a better understanding for what happens when cells don’t work as they should.


Units : 3
Lecturer : Asst. Prof. Dr. Asia Abdulhamid Mohammed Saadullah

Description :

The science of study fungi is called Mycology. Fungi are important living organisms; some have a positive impact on our life. Others displayed harmful effect. This course consists of a basic introduction to mycology and medical mycology which deals with the diseases caused by fungi with their etiological agents, morphological features, modes of infections, diagnosis and management of fungal diseases.

The objectives of this course include 1- The general characteristics of fungi, their structure, mode of their living, nutrition and reproduction. 2- Their evolution and systematic position as they are currently distributed into three kingdoms: Protozoa, Chromista and Eumycota. 3- To give the students the basic information about clinical aspects of fungi 4- Their importance as pathogens on human and animals as well as plant pathogens. Their role in food processing and spoilage, and their importance in producing useful (enzymes, antibiotics) and harmful metabolites ( mycotoxins ).